Russian version

Copyright © 1999 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.


by Sergei V. Rjabchikov

A new portion of the ancient Russian (pre-Cyrillic) inscriptions is examined.

1. As has been shown earlier, the Scythian goddess Argimpasa is associated with the artifacts - a team of a bull together with two snakes and a symbol of fertility (a rhomb) - of the burial of the Indo-Aryans investigated by Y.A. Shilov (1995: 189-90). Notice that Russian gad signifies 'reptile (snake)'.

Let us study the text inscribed on the Pnevishcha stone (see figure 1).

Figure 1.
It reads G-a-t-u u-n-e-i RHOMB r-u-e 'To the young serpent - the symbol of fertility (the determinative) - (this deity incarnated in a cow) howls'. So it is dedication to the serpent goddess.

The other side of the same stone contains the text as follows (see figure 2):

Figure 2.
The text begins with the letters shch-ch (ts), cf. Russian shchuka 'pike'; moreover, the sign of a pike is represented here (Seryakov 1997: 61). I think that the pike is an incarnation of the Scythian god Targitaos (= Russian god Dazh'bog), the husband of the goddess Argimpasa. Near the pike the word ve-r-t (cf. Russian solntsevorot) 'the motion of the sun', the determinative HEAD OF A HORNED ANIMAL, and the word n-shch (cf. Russian noch') 'night' are written. This record is similar to one of Proto-Sinaian inscriptions.

2. The Arab scientist Ibn-Yakub-el-Nedim copied an ancient Russian record in his book in 987 A.D., see figure 3.

Figure 3.
This text reads HORSE ONE ONE ONE k-sh ONE SLEDGE. Here the number one is written with the help of the letter a. The word k(a)sh (kosh) means 'carriage' (this word may be read as l(a)sh 'horse', too). So the record informs about a Russian troika.

3. The text on a seal of Russian Grand Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich (Yanin 1970) is presented in figure 4.

Figure 4.
It reads (the one side:) S-ve-ya-t-o-s T-m-a-t-a-g

(the other side:) g-t-r 7 6480 k-k R-r

The word Sveyatos is the shortening of the name Svyatoslav. The word Tmatag is another name of the town Tmutarakan'. The word tma is 'darkness', and the word tag (dag) 'the sun' is registered in the Western Slavonic and in some other languages. The word (a)g(a)t(a)r corresponds to Scythian agathyrsos and Russian bogatyr' 'cavalryman', cf. also Old Indian ghatay 'to kill'. 6480 minus 7 is equal to 6473, i.e. it is a designation of 965 A.D.. Grand Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich destroyed the Khazar state and smashed the troops of the Alani (Yases) and Circassians (Kasogs) (PSRL 1978: 43) that year. It is obvious that he conquered the town Tamatarha (Tmutarakan') as well. The words k(a)k(o) R(a)r(og) mean lit. 'as (the sun deity) Rarog (Russian Prince Ryurik)'.

Thus, on this seal the Kievan Grand Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich is called (Prince of) Tmutarakan' as well as "a cavalryman (victor) in 965 like (Russian Prince) Ryurik".


PSRL, 1978: Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisey. Ed. B.A. Rybakov. Vol. 34. Moscow: Nauka.

Seryakov, M.L., 1997. Russkaya dokhristianskaya pis'mennost'. St. Petersbirg: Klad.

Shilov, Y.A., 1995. Prarodina Ariev: Istoriya, obryady i mify. Kiev: SINTO.

Yanin, V.L., 1970. Aktovye pechati Drevney Rusi X - XV vv. Vol. 1. Pechati X - nachala XIII v. Moscow: Nauka.

Copyright © 1999 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.

Published 15 November 1999.

Sergei V. Rjabchikov, Krasnodar, RUSSIA.

How to cite the articles of "THE SLAVONIC ANTIQUITY" Home Page in printed articles: like articles. Maintain the link if citing in the World Wide Web. Notice italics on the homepage name:

Rjabchikov, Sergei V., 1999. The Interpretation of Three Ancient Russian Texts. "THE SLAVONIC ANTIQUITY" Home Page (


Thanks for visiting.

E-mail me here at

Return to Top of Home Page