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Copyright © 1999 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.


by Sergei V. Rjabchikov

I continue to study the Proto-Palestinian and Proto-Sinaian inscriptions (Rjabchikov 1998: 22-3). To interpret the texts, the readings of the signs of the Linear B (Linear A) are used. Their nomenclature is published in the works (Chadwick 1967; Gelb 1963: fig. 51). The nomenclature of the signs of the Phaistos disk is published in the work (Evans 1909); this script is the decorative form of the Linear A indeed (Rjabchikov 1998: 6-11). For example, sign 77 of Linear A/B = sign P18 of the Phaistos disk, they read ka, ga; the latter is the prototype of the Greek letter gamma. Only several signs are specific. For example, the sign "+" reads ta, cf. the similar letter of the Phoenician alphabet. Many signs which are equal to the signs of the Linear A/B and of the disk are stylized, so that they resemble the Greek letters. These texts as well as the texts of the Linear A and of the Phaistos disk are written down in the Proto-Slavonic language (dialect). Notice that the signs of the examined records are more ancient than the Phoenician alphabet, so the ancient Phoenicians borrowed in my opinion the Proto-Slavonic signs. Sometimes the latter play role of the letters.

The Proto-Palestinian inscriptions are examined below:

1. The text on a bronze dagger (Gelb 1963, fig. 64, 3) reads: P38 (?)- P3 P35-05 (=P23) Hora Veto, i.e. the deities Hor (Hors, Horus) and Vit. They are presented together in the beginning of text of the Phaistos disk (Rjabchikov 1998: 8).

2. The text (Gelb 1963, fig. 64, 6) reads: ta-ga ya-ga-ni (the Egyptian hieroglyphs R and RA 'THE SUN' are the determinatives) ra. Here the word taga corresponds to Old Indian dahas 'fire, heat', German Tag 'day', Circassian tyg''e, dyg''e 'the sun', Old Prussian dagis 'summer', Lithuanian dagas 'harvest'. The term yag(a)ni correlates with Old Indian agnis and Russian ogon' 'fire' (Vasmer 1987: 118). This text also contains the following words: (the sign which is similar to the Greek letter ksi) GOATS ka-s*-s*-ya 'goats'. The goats might be the characters of the Proto-Slavonic mythology (Shilov 1995: 208-9; 212-4). I think that the sign K(o)si 'goat(s)' was added later to the Greek alphabet as the letter ksi. The particle s*-ya denotes Plural, cf. the Russian suffix shche (e.g., Russian chudovishche, idolishche).

3. The text (Gelb 1963, fig. 64, 7) reads: (the sign Kosi = the Greek letter ksi) SHE-GOAT ta-yo (3 dots = volume) ma-li (vertical line); ta u-ga-ra-ta. This report sounds in modern Russian: Koza daet .... moloko. Eto Ugarit 'The she-goat gives the milk. This is (the town) Ugarit'.

4. The text (Gelb 1963, fig. 64, 8) reads: E-li-k(a)-u ra-u (vertical line) ta ma-ra-ma-ve '(This record is dedicated to) the great king; he died'. The form elik- 'great' is comparable with Greek eilo, eileo 'I am pressing' (Vasmer 1986a: 289). The form ra- 'king' has certain parallels, too. The form m(a)ram 'to die' correlates with Russian umirat' 'to die', mertvy 'dead', morit' 'to starve', Old Church Slavonic izmr''m'rati 'to die', Old Indian maras 'death', marayati 'he kills' (Vasmer 1986b: 651, 655; Shilov 1995: 295).

5. The text (Gelb 1963, fig. 64, 11) reads: ra, ra, ra THE SUN (det.) (vertical line) vo-R (the Egyptian hieroglyph)-ta ve-za '(the motion of the) sun; the eternal motion (of the sun) (cf. modern Russian vechny 'eternal' and (solntse)vorot 'the motion of the sun').

6. The text (Gelb 1963, fig. 64, 5; the figure must be inverted) reads: ra-u-so-u-ka 'Russian'.

The Proto-Sinaian inscriptions are examined below:

1. The Proto-Sinaian inscription (Gelb 1963, fig. 62) reads: HEAD OF A HORNED ANIMAL (det., perhaps it reads PASA) Ya-ra vo-R (the Egyptian hieroglyph as the det.) -ra-ta; N (the Egyptian hieroglyph as the det.) nu-se vo-R (the Egyptian hieroglyph as the det.) -ra-ta. '(The deity) Yar(a): the motion (of the sun); the night: the motion (of the sun)'.

The character Yara connected with the bull is the Scythian deity Argimpasa and Slavonic deity Yarila. The term pasa is preserved in Old Indian as pacu 'herd; sacrificial animal'.

Interestingly, not only Argimpasa is connected with snakes, the Old Iranian and Armenian goddess Anahita plays the similar role, she is connected with snakes and bulls (Shilov 1995: 194). The three figurines from Knossos, Crete, are the goddess holding two snakes (Sokolov 1972: photos 58-63). One can distinguish the signs on one figurine (Sokolov 1972: photo 62), they are the upper part of the Egyptian hieroglyph anh 'eternal' and sign 59 ta of the Linear A/B. I read them anh-ta, i.e. Anahita. The full name of the goddess Anahita is Ardvi Sura Anahita 'Mighty, blameless Ardvi' (Braginsky 1991: 100). I believe that the name Ardvi reads as Proto-Slavonic Ar dvi (the goddess) Ar Dvi (i.e. either 'of the D(a)v = the Giving (god), otherwise the Slavonic Dazh'bog 'The giving god'' (1) or 'girl' (cf. Russian deva 'girl')) (2). It is highly plausible that the Scythian goddess Argimpasa is in close proximity to the goddess Ardvi Sura Anahita.

2. The Proto-Sinaian text (Yartseva 1990: 403, the upper figure) reads: ta za-za-ra HEAD OF A BULL (det.). As has been shown earlier (Rjabchikov 1998: 16), the record A-sa-sa-ra of the Linear A correlates with the sun and heat. On the other hand, the bulls and cows are associated with the sun in the Indo-Aryan mythology (Shilov 1995: 220, 224).

One Proto-Byblian text (Gelb 1963, fig. 84) reads: (The signs meaning 'number 1' and 'the sun') ve Pi Vo-u-to THE SUN. Zapa (THE SUNSETTING)-u. (Number) 5. '(The god) Vit (the god Vuto of the Phaistos disk) is in the ground (lit. 'in Pi', cf. the name of Api, the Scythian goddess of the earth). The waiting (3) for the sun after a night. The sacral number 5'.


1. Cf. also component sura of the name of Ardvi Sura Anahita which may be connected with Old Indian surya 'the sun'.

2. Cf. also Old Indian deva 'god', devi 'goddess'.

3. Cf. Old Church Slavonic zapa 'waiting'.


Braginsky, I.S., 1991. Ardvisura Anahita. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 1. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 100-1.

Chadwick, J., 1967. The Decipherment of Linear B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evans, A., 1909. Scripta Minoa I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gelb I.J., 1963. A Study of Writing. Chicago - London: Chicago University Press.

Rjabchikov, S.V., 1998. Drevnie texty slavyan i adygov. Krasnodar: Torgovo-promyshlennaya palata Krasnodarskogo kraya.

Shilov, Y.A., 1995. Prarodina Ariev: Istoriya, obryady i mify. Kiev: SINTO.

Sokolov, G., 1972. Egeyskoe iskusstvo. Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo.

Vasmer, M., 1986a. Etimologichesky slovar' russkogo yazyka. Vol. 1. Moscow: Progress.

Vasmer, M., 1986b. Etimologichesky slovar' russkogo yazyka. Vol. 2. Moscow: Progress.

Vasmer, M., 1987. Etimologichesky slovar' russkogo yazyka. Vol. 3. Moscow: Progress.

Yartseva, V.N. (ed.), 1990. Lingvistichesky entsiklopedichesky slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, p. 403.

Copyright © 1999 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.

Published 16 October 1999; revised 18 October 1999.

Sergei V. Rjabchikov, Krasnodar, RUSSIA.

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