буржуазный профиль пвх Schuco ласковый  |  свадебные подарки Russian version

Copyright © 2001 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.

THE INTERPRETATION OF SOME SARMATIAN MOTIFS AND INSCRIPTIONS

by Sergei V. Rjabchikov

The Scythians and Sarmatae were in my opinion the Proto-Slavs (the Indo-Aryans). The name of the Scythian goddess Ditagoia (Dashevskaya 1991: 44) consists of two Scythian words, dita 'child; connection' (cf. Old Indian diti 'connection', Russian ditya 'child') and goi associated with the fertility (cf. Old Indian gaya 'house; household; family; offspring; sky', Iranian (Avesta) gaya 'life'). The name of the Bosporan king Douptounos (Duptun) (Tsvetaeva 1979: 113) contains the Scythian/Sarmatian words dup 'oak' (cf. Russian dub 'oak') and tun 'air; to blow' (cf. Old Indian tula 'air', Russian dut' 'to blow', dunovenie '(of wind) breath'). It is possible that this name reflects the cult of the sky god preserved in the cult of the Russian pagan thunder god Perun (1). Let us examine some Scythian and Bosporan names (Shcherbina 1910: 281-96). The name of the Scythian king Aritharn consists of Scythian/Sarmatian ar 'Aryan' and tarn 'fire; horse; carrying across; saviour; protector; clean; clear'; this name (Ari(a) tarn) signifies 'The Aryan fire (horse; saviour; protector; crossing)', cf. Old Indian arya 'excellent; respectable; dear; master; mistress', tara 'fire; horse; carrying across; saviour; protector; clean; clear', tarane 'in crossing'. The name of the Bosporan king Pharnak includes the root farn (cf. Old Indian para 'highest; supreme; guardian; keeper') and the suffix ak which is comparable with Russian suffixes ak, ek/ok. The name of the Bosporan kings Kotis (Kot) contains Scythian/Sarmatian kot 'carriage; military transport'. The Scythian name Asokomas (Aso kom-) 'The bright (solar) horse', cf. Scythian/Sarmatian aso 'bright; clear; solar' and komo 'horse', Old Russian komon' 'horse'. The name Komosaris (Komo sar- ) of the wife of the Bosporan king Perisad I means 'The mare -- the dawn', cf. Scythian/Sarmatian komo 'horse', sarya 'dawn', Russian zarya 'dawn'. The name of the Bosporan queen Targitao is comparable with the name of the Scythian/Sarmatian god Targitai. A Bosporan name, Ardinzianos (Ardinzian) (Tsvetaeva 1979: 112), consists of Scythian/Sarmatian ar 'Aryan', din 'day' and zian 'shine; light; radiance; the sun'; this name (Ar din zian) signifies 'An Aryan (by name) 'The daylight'', cf. Old Indian dina, Etruscan tin- (2), Russian den' 'day', Scythian/Sarmatian so 'bright; look; eye; heat; shine; to shine', Russian siyanie 'radiance', English shine.

One can decode several Sarmatian motifs and inscriptions. I use my own translation scheme for reading the Scythian (Proto-Slavonic) signs.

1. It is known that the name of the Bosporan king Aspurgus written down by the Proto-Slavonic signs is represented together with cruciform and wavy grooves on several bricks of the ancient Bosporan town Gorgippia (modern Anapa) (3). In my opinion, the cruciform signs read (a)ya 'vitality'. The wavy signs read as Sarmatian kup- 'water', since this word is included in another name of Aspurgus, Rescuporis I (Re s kupor).

Let us consider signs inscribed on the marble sculpture No 2 of the lion from the ancient town Olbia (Ukraine); now it is in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. An interesting combination of Sarmatian symbols (Drachuk 1975: table L) is presented in figure 1.

aspr1.gif
Figure 1.
The fragment begins and ends with the signs of an arrows/a bow. Then the word 12-59-33 sotara 'old man; leader; chief', a royal epithet, is presented. Then the word 80 33 mara and the standard form of the name of the Bosporan king Aspurgus, As 'The Brightness' (4), are written together with the word 33 ra 'the sun' (i.e. Rescuporis). The word 33 ra 'the sun' and the symbol of the sun are written down among other Sarmatian signs on the marble sculpture No 1 of the lion from Olbia, now it is in the Hermitage (Drachuk 1975: table XLV), see figure 2.

sunsol.gif
Figure 2.
I think that the record presented in figure 1 informs about the death of the king Aspurgus, cf. Old Indian mr 'to die; to kill', Russian umirat' 'to die', mertvyy 'dead'.

The signs of an arrow/a bow are the solar symbols. First of all, the wordplay is quite possible: cf. Old Indian bana 'arrow' and bhanu 'the sun'. Besides, Old Indian svaru signifies 'arrow; sunshine; thunderbolt; sacrifice'; an arrow or a spear are the symbols of the sun in the Slavonic beliefs (5). Let us consider several signs inscribed on the marble lion No 2 (Drachuk 1975: table L), see figure 3 (in this and other cases I do not show some minor signs).

arrow1.gif
Figure 3.
I have distinguished the sign of a horse/a bird, cf. Old Indian vi 'horse; bird', the sign of an arrows/a bow and signs 33-33 rar (the root ra 'the sun' + the suffix r) 'solar'. This word is registered on a silver goblet which was discovered in a Sarmatian barrow mound of the Zhutovo cemetery. The word rar is comparable with the name Rarog 'fire bird' of the Slavonic mythology, Czech raroh 'falcon' (6). Moreover, the name Polamrar (Polam Rar) is mentioned in a Russian charm entitled Molitva na prognanie ot vsyakogo zla (The Prayer for the Expulsion of Any Evil). I think that Scythian/Sarmatian ra 'the sun; sun god' came from the ancient Egyptian name of the sun god Ra, cf. also Russian raduga 'rainbow' < *ra duga 'arc of the sun', zarya 'dawn' < *sa ra 'the sun (is shining)', Old Indian ravi 'the sun; sun god' < *ra vi 'solar bird/horse', surya 'the sun; sun god' < su rya (= ra) 'the creator -- the sun'.

Let us examine a bronze buckle from the ancient town Chersonesus (near modern Sevastopol, the Crimea, Ukraine) (Drachuk 1975: table XV, figure 1; figure 2, 1; 143). A pair of a arrow/a bow is depicted on it, see figure 4.

arrow2.gif
Figure 4.
I think that these signs are the solar symbols.

Let us examine a Sarmatian gold flat crampon discovered in the Seversky barrow, the Seversky district, the Krasnodar Territory, Russia. It was dated to 2nd century B.C., now it is in the State Historical Museum, Moscow, Russia (Anfimov 1987: 190). Three groups of four rounds demonstrate the motion of the sun throughout a year. Two groups containing five and six dots respectively denote eleven months (or the fifth and sixth months). Besides, there are two signs of the World Tree, the calendar semicircles with several (from four to ten) dots (cf. sign 12 of the Phaistos disk) as well as several signs of arrows on this artifact. I believe that these arrows are the solar symbols.

2. Now one can decode some signs inscribed on the marble lion No 2 (Drachuk 1975: table L), see figure 5.

aspr2.gif
Figure 5.
The upper row of the signs contains signs 23-33 mura, cf. Old Indian mura 'rushing; impetuous', the symbolic figure of a boar, and the rhomb ay(a) divided into two parts, cf. Hittite eia 'the World Tree', Old Indian ayus 'life; vitality; vigour; long life', Russian yaytso 'egg', German Ei 'egg'. In my opinion, this record describes the creation of the Universe by the Indo-Arian god Prajapati incarnated in the boar (7). Then the sign of the sun is depicted. Then sign 33 ra 'the sun', the swastika demonstrating here the sky and the earth as well as sign 80 ma 'solar; the sun' are presented. Then one can read the word 72-80 pe-ma, cf. Old Indian bhama 'light; brightness' together with two signs of the sun and the word 59-33 Tar(a) 'the god Targitai = Indra'. The two suns symbolise the brothers twins Agni and Indra. Now one can understand other signs of this figure. Sign 12 so inserted in the sign of the sun reads as Scythian so 'bright; look; eye; heat; shine; to shine'. Signs 08-12 aso and the sign symbolising the thunder (cf. Old Indian purvi 'sunrise; east; the sun', Russian bury 'brown', English burn; Old Indian puray 'to pour', Russian burya 'storm') denote the name Aspurgus. Two words 12-59 sata which surround this name are comparable with Old Indian sata 'light; lustre; gained; obtained; gift; wealth', satana 'reproduction'. Besides, sign 33 ra 'the sun' and a determinative, the sign of the sun, are presented. Signs 12 72 59 may be read as so pata 'motion of the sun', cf. Old Indian patana 'flight; stroke of an arrow'. The words 12 46 so (a)ya mean 'the sun -- the vitality', and the word 05 ja means 'born', cf. Old Indian ja 'born'.

3. It is necessary to correct my interpretation of a record published earlier. Let us examine the Kerch slab from the ancient town Panticapeum, the capital of the Bosporan kingdom (modern Kerch, the Crimea, Ukraine), now it is in the Kerch Museum of local lore. Some Sarmatian symbols depicted on this slab (Drachuk 1975: table XXXV) are presented in figure 6.

sixsun.gif
Figure 6.
A wheel with six spokes is a symbol of the sun; such a symbol is sometimes represented together with a pair of horses in works of the Indo-European art (8). In B.A. Rybakov's (1994: 297) opinion, the sign of thunder having the six rays is connected not only with the sun, but also with the sky and the lord of the sky in the Slavonic beliefs. The words 12 46 so (a)ya mean 'the sun -- the vitality'. Two signs 12 so 'the sun' which surround the rhomb ay(a) are the variant of the expression 'the sun -- the vitality'.

4. Some symbols are depicted on the Kerch slab (Drachuk 1975: table XXXVI), see figure 7.

horsuns.gif
Figure 7.
The word 46 (a)ya means 'the vitality'. Three signs of the sun depict the sun or the sun god Indra on the third sky. The solar sign depicted a pair of horses is united with signs 12 54 33 sovara, cf. Old Indian svaru 'arrow; sunshine; thunderbolt; sacrifice'. Near the sign of the swastika (the sun) there are the following signs (words): the word 67 80 gima 'winter' (cf. Old Indian hima 'winter; cold season'), perhaps it is the name of the Scythian goddess Argimpasa or of the Scythian god Thagimasad; the word 59 72 tape, it is the name of the Scythian supreme sun goddess Tabiti; the word 01 da (cf. Old Indian da 'giving; gift; heat') together with another pair of horses and the sign of a horse together with the word 46 (a)ya 'the vitality'; two signs 12 so 'the sun' which surround the rhomb ay(a) 'the vitality'.

5. Some symbols are depicted on the Kerch slab (Drachuk 1975: table XXXV), see figure 8.

goito1.gif
Figure 8.
The sign of the Scythian god Goitosir is written down together with the sign of the sun. It is known that the Slavs took place in the phallic cults (Rybakov 1994: 36, 39, figure, 41, figure).

Some symbols are depicted on the Kerch slab (Drachuk 1975: table XXXV), see figure 9.

goito2.gif
Figure 9.
Again, the name of the god Goitosir is written down together with the sign of the sun. Another sign of the sun is recorded near the sign of an arrow/a bow (it is a solar symbol). Signs 59 01 read tada, cf. Old Indian tada 'mountain; beating' (these sign may be read as 01 59 data, too, cf. Old Indian data 'cleansed; given'). Two signs 12 so 'the sun' which surround sign 46 (a)ya 'the vitality' mean 'the sun -- the vitality'. The word 72 76 reads para, cf. Old Indian para 'highest; supreme; guardian; keeper'; the word 12 80 reads soma, cf. Old Indian soma 'elixir'. The zigzag inserted in the sign of the sun is a symbol of the sky (thunder) god (9). Apparently, the information obtained here correlates with the Indo-Arian mythology (10).

6. Several Sarmatian signs are inscribed on an anthropomorphic grave-stone from Kerch (Drachuk 1975: table XXXI, figure 7; 152), see figure 10.

stabur.gif
Figure 10.
To understand the meaning of the lower sign, a line, let us study the written form of the name of the Bosporan king Radamsadius. This sign depicts a line (Drachuk 1975: 66; table III, 3). As the name Radamsadius contains the word ra 'the sun', the line may be associated with other part of this name, damasad, only. I think that it is the word sad, cf. Old Indian sathan 'connection', on the other hand, the word dama is comparable with Old Indian dam 'gentle', damita 'quiet'. I believe that this king chose his name because of an annular (almost full) solar eclipse of July 27, A.D. 306 (I have used the RedShift 2 computer program); he ruled from A.D. 308 till A.D. 320. In this instance the name Ra dam Sad means 'The quiet sun (because of the chthonic god) (Ta Gima) Sad'. Maybe, the god Ta Gima Sad 'This is winter -- connection (Yama)' is another name of the Indo-Arian god (king of the dead) Yama, cf. Scythian sad 'connection', Old Indian yama 'twin' (11); Russian bliznets 'twin', blizky 'near'. The name Perisad (12) (Peri Sad) of several Bosporan kings contains Sarmatian per- 'to take; to carry, to take away' and Sad (Ta Gima Sad). Now one can begin to read the record of the grave-stone. The signs of the line and the sun denote 'the connection of the sun'. Sign 08 reads a, cf. Old Indian a 'from'; so this word and the sun sign (Scythian/Sarmatian so, ra 'the sun') give the word aso 'solar' (lit. 'from the sun'), cf. Russian yasny 'clear; bright; fine' (13). Sign 67 gi may be an abridgement of Scythian/Sarmatian gip- 'to keep; to die; dead', Ta Gima Sad 'the name of the chthonic god'. The word 12 54 sova united with the zigzag sign (the symbol of the sky and the sky deity) is comparable with Old Indian sva 'human soul; relation'. The word 23 mu is comparable with Old Indian mu 'funeral pile'; the word 54 va is comparable with Old Indian va 'residence; dwelling'. These words have much potential for yielding information about the Scythian/Sarmatian funerals. The figure of a trident, the coat of arms of the Kingdom of the Bosporus, as well as the sun sign denote that here there is the name of a king's relative (or of a king). It is the name 59 Ta, cf. Old Indian ta 'tail; breast; hip; warrior; thief', Scythian te associated with the senses 'fire; heat; intense heat; brightness; to smelt; to thaw'. These data must be used with great caution. I prefer to interpret this word as the name of a king's relative, although the choice of the name of the Bosporan king Teiranes (14) (Tei ra-n 'The solar light') who ruled in the 3rd century A.D. may be the correct decision.

A statuette of the god Mitra killing a bull was discovered in Panticapeum (Toporov 1992b: 156, photo). On this figure one can read sign 23 mu (cf. Old Indian mu 'funeral pile'), the zigzag sign (the symbol of the sky and the sky deity) and signs 73 59 76 Mit(a)ra 'Mitra'. Mitra is the Iranian and Indo-Aryan sun god (Toporov 1992b, 1992c). This name is incorparated in the name Mithridates of the Bosporan kings (15). The word dat- is comparable with Old Indian data 'cleansed; given'.

7. Several Sarmatian signs depicted on a wall of the cave of Ak-kaya I, Belogorsk, the Crimea, Ukraine (Drachuk 1971: 31, figure 9) are presented in figure 11.

targoi.gif
Figure 11.
This fragment reads 59-33 Goi(tosir)-33 33-33 Tar(a) Goi(tosir)-ra rar(a) '(The god) Targitai, (the god) Goitosir-the sun, solar'.

8. Different signs are inscribed on the marble lion No 1 (Drachuk 1975: table XLIV), see figure 12.

infmuch.gif
Figure 12.
Sign 12 so 'bright; look; eye; heat; shine; to shine' is written together with the sign of a bird. This solar bird is presented near the sign of the sun associated with the word 01 01 01 dadada, cf. Old Indian dadadas 'thunder'. To the right of the solar bird there is the word a-76, i.e. ara. I think that this word means 'eagle' (cf. Scythian or-ik ('eaglet'), Gothic ara, Hittite haras, Lithuanian arelis, Russian orel 'eagle', Greek ornis 'bird') that might come from Old Indian ara 'fast' (16) or arjuna 'white; bright'.

Now it should be well to correct my readings of Sarmatian records on a silver plate discovered in a Sarmatian barrow mound of the Zhutovo cemetery (Mordvintseva 2000: 145, figures 1 and 2), see figures 13 - 15.

teller1.gif
Figure 13.

teller2.gif
Figure 14.

teller3.gif
Figure 15.
The record presented in figure 12 reads a 76 01 ara da 'eagle-mountain/heat', cf. Old Indian da 'mountain; heat'. Signs a and 76 ra of figures 14 and 15 give the word ara 'eagle'.

To the left of the solar bird inscribed on the marble lion there is the word 72 be. As has bee shown earlier, this word is comparable with Russian bit' (the root bi-) 'to beat', Perun 'The one who beats' (the name of the Russian pagan god thunderer who corresponds to the Scythian sky god Papai/Dyaus). The name 08-80 Yama is presented twice. To the right of one of these words written near the solar bird there is the row of symbols. They are signs 59 a 76 Tara 'Targitai'; the sign of a horse associated with sign 33 ra 'the sun'; the symbolic designation of the top of a house's roof decorated with a pair of horses, under it there is another design of a pair of horses; the design of a pair of horses, above this figure one can distinguish sign 33 ra 'the sun' and signs a 09 54 aseva, cf. Old Indian asva 'horse'. Then I read the sign of Goi(tosir) united with sign 33 ra 'the sun'. Near this name there is sign 72 be denoting the thunder (sky) god. I suppose that it describes the procreation function of the sky (cf. Russian dozhd' 'rain', Old Indian ja 'born').

Under the row of the signs of horses -- the symbols of the Indo-Aryan god Agni 'Fire' -- there are signs 76 80 rama and the sign (determinative) depicting a ram's head (the rhomb with two "horns"). This word is comparable with Old Indian remi 'ram', ramb 'lamb'. It should be stressed that the ram is also an incarnation of the fire god. Near the sign of the ram's head there are the connected signs 23 mu 'funeral pile' and 12 so 'bright; look; eye; heat; shine; to shine'. I suppose that this fragment informs about the sacrifices of horses and cattle during Scythian/Sarmatian funerals (The History of Herodotus: Book IV).

The word 72 01 pe-da may be compared with Old Indian pada 'footstep; step; mark'; the sun sign is united with sign 02 ro, cf. ra 'the sun'. The sun sign and the line inscribed under it denote 'the connection of the sun'. Three shorter lines together with the determinative -- a curved line -- denote the three steps of the Indo-Arian god Visnu incarnated in a horse (17). The names of the gods 59-33 Tar(a) 'Targitai' and Goi(tosir) 'Goitosir' are written here. The rhomb ay(a) means 'vitality'.

Near the decoded signs inscribed on the marble lion No 1 and shown in figure 12 there are signs (Drachuk 1975: table XLIV), see figure 16.

thundg.gif
Figure 16.
Here sign 72 be is associated with the thunder (sky) god; it is included in the three-sided swastika that is in my opinion another symbol (the third sky?) of the thunder and the thunder (sky) god.

Near the decoded signs inscribed on the marble lion No 1 and shown in figure 12 there are signs (Drachuk 1975: table XLIV), see figure 17.

kolsn.gif
Figure 17.
This fragment contains a variant of the thunder sign examined above and an arrow of the thunder as well as the word 33-33 rar(a) 'solar', the zigzag sign (the lightning; the sky god Dyaus/Papai) in the combination with signs 76 59 rata, cf. Old Indian ratha 'chariot; carriage; hero'. The Indo-Aryan god Indra is not only the sun deity, but also the storm god; he rides a horse, or rides in a gold chariot across the heavens. According to Rig Veda (2.12), horses and all chariots are under his supreme control. The word rar 'solar' corresponds to the Slavonic fire bird (falcon) Rarog; besides, this god known also as Rarashek, Rarah personifies the storm and whirlwind (18).

Near the decoded signs inscribed on the marble lion No 1 and shown in figure 12 there are signs (Drachuk 1975: table XLIV), see figure 18.

ragrms.gif
Figure 18.
The zigzag sign is united with sign 33 ra 'the sun'.

On the marble lion No 1 there are signs (Drachuk 1975: table XLIV), see figure 19.

zigzag1.gif
Figure 19.
The zigzag sign is united with sign 72 be associated with the thunder (sky) god.

On the marble lion No 1 there are signs (Drachuk 1975: table XLIV), see figure 20.

zigzag2.gif
Figure 20.
The zigzag sign is united with sign 59 ta, cf. Old Indian ta 'warrior', Scythian te associated with the senses 'fire; heat; intense heat; brightness; to smelt; to thaw'.

9. Some symbols are depicted on the Kerch slab (Drachuk 1975: table XXXV), see figure 21.

malta.gif
Figure 21.
A key to this fragment is five lines. I think that this record is devoted to the Scythian/Sarmatian god of fire, Agni, connected with number five. The word 72-33 is written thrice and reads para, cf. Old Indian para 'highest; supreme; guardian; keeper'. The word 23 mu is comparable with Old Indian mu 'funeral pile'; the word 01 da is comparable with Old Indian da 'giving; gift; heat'. Near these signs there is the sign that resembles the Maltese cross. In B.A. Rybakov's (1994: 336-7) opinion, this is a sign of fertility, a symbol of cattle's fecundity. Under this symbol (a rhomb ay(a) and four triangles = four seasons, twelve months) there are the following words: the zigzag sign and the word 33 ra 'the sun' as well as the word 12-59 sata, cf. Old Indian sata 'light; lustre; gained; obtained; gift; wealth', satana 'reproduction'. To the right of the "Maltese cross" there are signs 12 a 76 05, i.e. so ara ja 'the sun-the eagle -- born', cf. also Old Indian arjuna 'white; bright'. This report may refer to the eagle Suparna (cf. Old Indian su 'to create; to produce', para 'highest; supreme; guardian; keeper', Greek Parnassos (19) 'mountain where Apollo 'Junior' or 'Highest/Supreme' and muses live') who brings the elixir soma to the Indo-Arian god Indra before his battle with serpentine Vritra (20). The sun sign and sign 33 ra 'the sun' end with the sign resembling a horned animal, cf. the signs 'bull/cow' of the Tmutarakan' graffiti (21). It is well to bear in mind that the five and six dots represented on the Sarmatian gold flat crampon may denote the fire god and the sky (thunder) god respectively.

10. Let us consider the tip of a spear discovered in Münchenberg, Germany (Drachuk 1975: table XIX, 2; 149), see figure 22.

spear.gif
Figure 22.
On the left figure I have distinguished the word 59 ta, cf. Old Indian ta 'warrior', Scythian te associated with the senses 'fire; heat; intense heat; brightness; to smelt; to thaw', as well as the word 33-33 rar(a) 'solar; (Rarog)'. Each word correlates with the sun sign. On the right figure I have distinguished the word 59 ta with six dots (this word correlates with the sun sign); the thunder sign with nine dots and the swastika (the sun) with twelve dots (both signs correlate with the sun sign). So the sixth month (June 22, the summer solstice) 'Warrior-Fire' is named in the honour of the god Indra/Targitai, cf. also the name Thor of the thunder god of the Scandinavian mythology. It is possible that the day of Dorotheos -- June 5 in the Orthodox calendar (22) -- replaces the the ancient fiest of the god Targitai; the night of Dorotheos, according to a Russian token, is bright. The ninth month (September 22; the autumnal equinox) is named in the honour of the sky god Papai/Dyaus, cf. Russian bab'e leto. I suppose that the name Peretius of a certain month of the Bosporan calendar (Shcherbina 1910: 296) is indeed Pere(n)/Tyy 'The sky god Perun/Dyy = September' or Pere Tyy 'The sky god Dyy is carrying, is taking away = September'. Thus, the spear as a solar/thunder symbol is related to the sun and thunder deities.

NOTES

1. See Belyakova 1995: 68-73.

2. See Rjabchikov 1988: 19.

3. See Tsvetaeva 1979: 65. Some data concerning this king are collected in Tsvetaeva 1979: 15-6.

4. Cf. Russian yasny 'clear; bright; fine', Old Indian us 'to shine', Scythian so 'bright; look; eye; heat; shine; to shine'.

5. See Afanasiev 1996: 242-3.

6. See Ivanov and Toporov 1992a.

7. Cf. parallels in the Indo-Arian beliefs: see Shilov 1990: 140-1; 1995: 180, 182.

8. See Ivanov and Toporov 1991: 529, figure.

9. See Shilov 1995: 452. The lightning is represented on a Bosporan coin (Shcherbina 1910: 286).

10. See Toporov 1991: 534; 1992.

11. See Shilov 1995: 508. Y.A. Shilov compared the Indo-Arian god Yama with the ideas 'hole; grave'; see also my interpretation of a Scythian plot.

12. See Shcherbina 1910: 283, 285, 287.

13. The name Agar (Shcherbina 1910: 285) (A gar) of the Scythian king means in my opinion 'From the fire; fiery', cf. Old Indian gharma 'heat', Russian goret' 'to burn', gar' 'burning'. Interestingly, the form As of the sun deity is presented in an Old Russian text written down by the the signs of the "cherty i rezy" (pre-Cyrillic) script (Rjabchikov 1998: 13).

14. See Shcherbina 1910: 298.

15. See Shcherbina 1910: 287, 295.

16. See Diachenko 1993: 387.

17. See Serebryany 1991; Shilov 1995: 201.

18. See Diachenko 1993: 1098.

19. See Botvinnik 1992.

20. See Toporov 1991: 534; Shilov 1995: 365.

21. See Rjabchikov 2000: 14, 18, 19, 21, 34.

22. See Usov 1997: 58.

REFERENCES

Afanasiev, A., 1996. Proiskhozhdenie mifa. Stat'i po fol'kloru, etnografii i mifologii. Moscow: Indrik.

Anfimov, N.V., 1987. The Kuban's Ancient Gold. Krasnodar: Krasnodar Book Publishers.

Belyakova, G.S., 1995. Slavyanskaya mifologiya. Moscow: Prosveshchenie.

Botvinnik, M.N., 1992. Parnas. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 290-1.

Dashevskaya, O.D., 1991. Pozdnie skify v Krymu. Arkheologiya SSSR. Svod arkheologicheskikh istochnikov. Vol. D 1-7. Moscow: Nauka.

Diachenko, G., 1993. Polny tserkovno-slavyansky slovar'. Moscow: Izdatel'sky otdel Moskovskogo Patriarkhata.

Drachuk, V.S., 1971. Shag v nevedomoe. Simferopol: Krym.

Drachuk, V.S., 1975. Sistemy znakov Severnogo Prichernomor'ya (Tamgoobraznye znaki severopontiyskoy periferii antichnogo mira pervych vekov nashey ery). Kiev: Naukova dumka.

Ivanov, V.V. and V.N. Toporov, 1991. Indoevropeyskaya mifologiya. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 1. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 527-33.

Ivanov, V.V. and V.N. Toporov, 1992. Rarog. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, p. 368.

Mordvintseva, V.I., 2000. Nabor serebryanoy posudy iz sarmatskogo mogil'nika Zhutovo. Rossiyskaya arkheologiya, 1: 144-53.

Rjabchikov, S.V., 1998. Drevnie texty slavyan i adygov. Krasnodar: Torgovo-promyshlennaya palata Krasnodarskogo kraya.

Rjabchikov, S.V., 2000. Tmutarakanskie graffiti. Krasnodar: Stil.

Rybakov, B.A., 1994. Yazychestvo drevnikh slavyan. Moscow: Nauka.

Serebryany, S.D., 1991. Vishnu. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 1. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 238-9.

Shcherbina, F.A., 1910. Istoriya Kubanskogo kazach'ego voyska. Vol. 1. Ekaterinodar.

Shilov, Y.A., 1990. Kosmicheskie tayny kurganov. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya.

Shilov, Y.A., 1995. Prarodina Ariev: Istoriya, obryady i mify. Kiev: SINTO.

Toporov, V.N., 1991. Indra. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 1. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 533-5.

Toporov, V.N., 1992a. Soma. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 462-3.

Toporov, V.N., 1992b. Mitra. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 154-7.

Toporov, V.N., 1992c. Mitra. In: S.A. Tokarev (ed.) Mify narodov mira. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, pp. 157-8.

Tsvetaeva, G.A., 1979. Bospor i Rim. Moscow: Nauka.

Usov, V.V. (ed.), 1997. Russky narodny pravoslavny kalendar'. Vol. 2. Moscow: MSP.


Copyright © 2001 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.

Published 24 May 2001; revised 6 August 2001 (the interpretation of the name Pharnak).

Sergei V. Rjabchikov, Krasnodar, RUSSIA.


How to cite the articles of "THE SLAVONIC ANTIQUITY" Home Page in printed articles: like articles. Maintain the link if citing in the World Wide Web. Notice italics on the homepage name:

Rjabchikov, Sergei V., 2001. The Interpretation of Some Sarmatian Motifs and Inscriptions. "THE SLAVONIC ANTIQUITY" Home Page (http://slavonicweb.chat.ru/sl30.htm).


"THE SLAVONIC ANTIQUITY" Home Page


Thanks for visiting.

E-mail me here at srjabchikov@hotmail.com

Return to Top of Home Page

Рейтинг@Mail.ru