The name of the town of Tmutarakan' is known as Tamatarha in the book "De Administrando Imperio" by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (1989: 175). I think that the latter place name can be split into Tama Tarha. The first term, tama, is the Proto-Slavonic *tema 'darkness'. But what does the term Tarha mean? I think that this word is the name of the fairytale old man Tarh Tarhovich. According to a Russian fairy tale (Rybakov 1987: 77), this blind character associated with the Scythian sun god Targitaos lived at the high Siyanskaya mountain (cf. Russian siyat' 'to shine') in the south of the Russia, and he waged war with the fairytale old woman Baba-Yaga. On these grounds I conclude that the place name Tama Tarha signifies either 'The Darkness of (the god) Tarh' or '(The transformation from) the Darkness to the Shine (Tarh)'. In this case Russian tarashchit (glaza)' 'to goggle' is connected with this term, tarha.
Let us examine the text of the end of the 8th c. A.D. - the beginning of the 9th c. A.D. inscribed on an Oriental coin (Dobrovolsky, Dubov and Kuzmenko 1981: 58, table IV) from a treasure at the site Bol'shoe Timerevo near the town Yaroslavl (see figure 1):
The Petershof treasure of the end of the 8th c. A.D. - the beginning of the 9th c. A.D. contains several Oriental coins with graffiti. First, it is the Greek inscription Zaharias (proper name), second, some signs are Turkic runes, otherwise the Khazar records (Dubov 1990: 112). Let us examine the inscription on a coin (Melnikova, Nikitin and Fomin 1984: 42, figure 2a) from the same treasure (see figure 2):
A coin housing in the Hermitage contains the following text (Dobrovolsky, Dubov and Kuzmenko 1981: 55, table I), see figure 3:
The text (Dobrovolsky, Dubov and Kuzmenko 1981: 55, table I) on a coin from the Hermitage is as follows (see figure 4):
Now one can read the record of the 9th - 10th c. A.D. taken down on both sides of an artifact from the site Gorodishche near the town Novgorod (Kaya 1998: 400, figure 119), see figure 5:
o-t t-o-s-k-i b(e)-e-s t-i t-u-zh-i-sh
'O (Jesus) Chris(t), defend (lit. 'take') (my) life from the melancholy. O demon, you grieve'.
The letter z includes two "crosses". It can be compared with the Etruscan letter z consisting of two "crosses". The letter (syllable) b(e) corresponds to the sign of the Linear A (B) 75 ve as well as of a sign of the Saca inscription.
The text on both side of a bone (Bychkov 1998: 95) discovered in Byelorussia is as follows (see figure 6):
The text on a bone (Bychkov 1998: 95) discovered in Byelorussia is as follows (see figure 7):
The inscription (Bychkov 1998: 96) found on a rock of the Carpathian Mountains contains in particular the following fragment (see figure 8):
The ancient Lithuanian flag (Narbutt 1835) looks like it represents here (see figure 9):
2. See (Shklyarevsky 1998: 67).
3. The river's name may be interpreted as U Ardanes '(The river) near (the Proto-Slavonic tribe) Ardan(es)'. Cf. also Jordan, the name of the main river of Palestine.
Bychkov, A., 1998. Vendskie runy. In: A. Platonov (ed.) Mify i magiya indoevropeytsev. Vol. 7. Moscow: Manager, pp. 90-6.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus [Konstantin Bagryanorodny], 1989. Ob upravlenii imperiey. Moscow: Nauka.
Dobrovolsky, I.G., I.V. Dubov and Y.K. Kuzmenko, 1981. Klassifikatsiya i interpretatsiya graffiti na vostochnykh monetakh (kollektsiya Ermitazha). In: V.M. Potin (ed.) Trudy gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. Vol. 21. Leningrad: Iskusstvo, pp. 53-77.
Dubov, I.V., 1990. Novye istochniki po istorii Drevney Rusi. Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo universiteta.
Kaya, A., 1998. Runy. Moscow: Lokid.
Melnikova, E.A., A.B. Nikitin and A.V. Fomin, 1984. Graffiti na kuficheskikh monetakh petergofskogo klada nachala IX v.. In: V.T. Pashuto (ed.) Drevneyshie gosudarstva na territorii SSSR. Materialy i issledovaniya: 1982 god. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 26-47.
Narbutt, T., 1835. Dzieje Starozytne narodu litewskiego. Wilno.
Rjabchikov, S.V., 1998a. Drevnie texty slavyan i adygov. Krasnodar: Torgovo-promyshlennaya palata Krasnodarskogo kraya.
Rjabchikov, S.V., 1998b. Tainstvennaya Tmutarakan'. Krasnodar: Torgovo-promyshlennaya palata Krasnodarskogo kraya.
Rybakov, B.A., 1987. Yazychestvo Drevney Rusi. Moscow: Nauka.
Shklyarevsky, I., 1998. Zagadki i tayny "Slova o Polku Igoreve". Moscow: Evraziya+.
Simonov, R.A., 1977. Matematicheskaya mysl' Drevney Rusi. Moscow: Nauka.
Copyright © 1999 by Sergei V. Rjabchikov. All Rights Reserved.
Published 1 November 1999; revised 4 November 1999.
Sergei V. Rjabchikov, Krasnodar, RUSSIA.
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